கிலாஃபத்தும் இந்திய துணைக்கண்டமும்

வரலாறு 07 ஜூலை 2012

 

 

 

 

கிலாஃபா முற்றாக அழிக்கப்பட்டு 85 வருடங்களையும் தாண்டிச் சென்று கொண்டிருக்கும் இன்றைய சூழலில்

K];ypk; ck;kj; jhk; cyfpd; gw;jpirfspYk; vt;thW mjpfhuj;JlDk;> fz;zpaj;JlDk; ,Ue;Njhk; vd;gij tphpthfTk;> MokhfTk; GhptJ ,d;wpaikahjjhFk;. NkYk; fpyh/gj;jpd; tuyhW Fwpj;Jk; mJ vt;thW gbg;gbahf kiwa Muk;gpj;J gpd;dh; Kw;whf tPo;j;jg;gl;lJ njhlh;ghfTk; Muha Ntz;baJk; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;> NkYk; rpyh; jtwhff;$Wtijg;Nghy fpyh/gj;jpd; tPo;r;rpapd; NghJ mg;NghjpUe;j khh;f;f mwpQh;fSk; K];ypk;fSk; nghpjhf myl;bf;nfhs;stpy;iy vd;w fUj;jpd; cz;ikepiy Fwpj;Jk; ehk; Kw;whf Muha Ntz;Lk;. cz;ikapy; me;jf;$w;W kpfTk; jtwhdjhFk;. Vnddpy; J}a;ikahd K];ypk;fs; gyh; fpyh/gj;ij njhlh;e;J ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; fhl;ba mf;fiwiaAk;> mJ jkJ fz;Kd;dhy; mopf;fg;gLk;NghJ mjdhy; mth;fs; mile;j NtjidfisAk; tuyhW gjpe;J itj;jpUf;fpwJ. ,jw;nfhU rpwe;j rhd;Nw ,e;jpa K];ypk;fSk;> ,e;jpahtpy; cUthd fpyh/gj; ,af;fKkhFk;.

 

fpyh/gj; mopf;fg;gl;lNghJ ,e;jpa K];ypk;fspd; vjph;eltbf;if vt;thwpUe;jJ vd;gij Muha Kd; vt;thW ,];yhkpa Ml;rp ,e;jpa Jizf;fz;lj;ij te;jile;jJ vd;gij Muha;tJ mtrpakhFk;. ,d;W K];ypk;fspd; cyf rdj;njhifapy; Vwf;Fiwa miug;gFjpia mjhtJ miu gpy;ypad; Ngiu ,d;iwa ,e;jpahtpd; 250 kpy;ypad; K];ypk;fs;> ghfp];jhdpd; 160 kpy;ypad; K];ypk;fs;> gq;fshNj]pd; 120 kpy;ypad; K];ypk;fs; cs;slf;Ffpd;wdh; vd;gJk;> ,d;iwa K];ypk; ck;kj;jpd; ngUk;ghd;ikNahhpd; nkhopahf (muigtplTk;) cUJ nkhop khwptpl;lJ vd;gJk; ,q;Nf ftdj;jpw;nfhs;sj;jf;fJ.


,e;jpahtpy; fpyhgj;jpd; tuyhW

K];ypk; th;j;jfh;fs; rpyh; fp.gp 711k; Mz;L rpe;J ejpf;fiu Xukhf ,e;J rKj;jpuj;jpy; gazpj;Jf;nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs;. ,jd;NghJ ,th;fs; gazk; nra;j fg;gy; flj;jg;gl;L nfhs;isaplg;gl;L gpd; gazk; nra;j midtUk;  rpiwg;gpbf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,e;jr; nra;jp ,];yhkpaf; fpyhgj;jpd; jiyikafj;ij vl;baJ. md;iwa fyp/gh my; typj; ,g;D mg;Jy; kypf;; ,Jgw;wp mwpe;J ,lk;ngw;w mePjpf;fhf rpe;jpd; Ml;rpahsh;fis kd;dpg;Gf;Nfl;FkhWk;  rpiwg;gpbf;fg;gl;l K];ypk;fis tpLtpf;FkhWk; NfhUk;gb> gf;jhj;jpNy jdJ MSeuhf  ,Ue;j `[;[h[; gpd; A+Rgpw;F gzpj;jhh;fs;. ,g;ghhpa gzpf;fhf  K];ypk;fspd; gilnahd;Wk; rpe;J gpuNjrj;jpw;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; ,];yhkpag; gilf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpagb ntWkdNt 17 taNj epuk;gpa  K`k;kJ gpd; fh\pk; my; jfhgp jdJ gilAld; rpe;jpw;F Gwg;gl;lhh;.

,];yhkpag;gil  rpe;Jg;gpue;jpakhd jngiy (jw;Nghija fuhr;rp) mile;jTld; gilj; jsgjp fyP/ghtpd; Nfhupf;ifia  rp;e;ij Ml;rp nra;Jnfhz;bUe;j uh[h jh`phplk; Kd;itj;jhu;. vdpDk;; ,e;j epahakhd Nfhupf;ifia uh[h jh`ph; mlhj;jhf  kWj;jhh;. vdNt K];ypk; gilapdh; uh[h jh`piu vjph;j;J Njhw;fbj;jJld; rpe;ij ifgw;wp fpyh/gj;jpd; fPo; nfhz;L te;jdh;.

my;yh`;tpd;; fl;lisia Nknyhq;fr; nra;Ak; Nehf;Fld; K`k;kJ gpd; fh]pk; K];ypk;fs; rpe;jpy; ngw;w ntw;wpia NkYk; tpupTgLj;jpdhh;. ,];yhkpa mfpjhthy; ce;jg;gl;l ,e;j ,uhZtk; Kd;;Nw Mz;Lfspy;  Ky;jhd; tiu gilnaLj;J rpe;ij KOikahf ifgw;wpaJld; gQ;rhg;gpd; fPo;g;gFjpiaAk; fpyh/gj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; nfhz;L te;jJ.

,e;jpa cgfz;lj;jpd; tlNkw;F gpuNjrj;ijAk; ifgw;wpa ,];yhkpa ,uhZtk; mq;F rpiyfis itj;J tzq;fpf;nfhz;bUe;jth;fis ,];yhj;jpd;ghy; mioj;J mth;fis ,];yhj;jpd; fPo; nfhz;L te;jJ. K`k;kJ gpd; fh]pkpd; eph;thfk; K];ypk;fisAk; K];ypk; my;yhjth;fisAk; xNu tpjkhfNt ghpghypj;jJld; ifgw;wg;gl;l gFjpfspd;; mjpfhhpfshf Kd;G flikahw;wpa K];ypk; my;yhjth;fisNa kPz;Lk; mth;fspd; gjtpfspy; mkh;j;jpaJ.

K`k;kJ gpd; fh]pk; kf;fSlDk;> muRlDk;  Neh;ikahf ,Uq;fs;. kf;fspd; ,aYikf;Nfw;g thpfis jPh;khdpj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs; vd fpyh/gj;jpd; mjpfhhpfsplk; gzpj;jhh;.

fyp/gh ,rhk; gpd; mg;Jy; khypf;fp;d; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; (fpgp 724 - fpgp 743) K];ypk;fs; fh\;kpiuAk; fq;uhitAk; ifgw;wpdh;. fpgp 754 fpgp - 775 fhyg;gFjpapy; Ml;;rp nra;j mg;ghrpa fyp/gh mG [hgh; my; kd;#hpd; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; fe;j`hUk; ifg;gw;wg;gl;;lJld; ,e;jpa cgfz;lk; KOtijAk;;  ,];yhkpa fpyh/gj;jpd; fPo; nfhz;Ltu Ntz;Lk; vd;w Kidg;G jPtpuk;  ngw;wJ.

fpgp 786 - fpgp 809 fhyg;gFjpapy;; Ml;rp nra;j fyP/gh `h&d; mh; u\Pj;jpd; fhyg; gFjpapy; K];ypk;fs; jkJ vy;iyia rpe;Jtpd; Nkw;F gFjpapypUe;J F[huhj; tiu tpuptilar; nra;jdh;. ,f;fhyg; gFjpapy; ,];yhkpa ,uhZj;jpdUk; mq;Nf Fbaku Muk;gpj;jJld; Gjpa efuq;fSk; Njhw;wk; ngw;wd. ,f;fhyg;gFjpapy; rhjp Kuz;ghLfspy; rpf;Fz;L Fg;Uld; Kuz;gl;Lf;nfhz;bUe;j ngUk;ghd;ik ,e;jpah;fs; cyfr;rNfhjuj;Jt ,af;fkhd ,];yhkpa ck;kj;Jld; Nfhh;f;g;gl;ldh;. Fg;hpd; fhhpUspy; %o;fpapUe;jth;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; J}a gufhrj;jpw;Fs; Eioe;jdh;. rpiy tzf;fj;jpypUe;J Kw;;whf tpLgl;L Vf ,iwtdhd my;yh`;it mbgzpa Muk;gpj;jdh;. ,t;thW ,d;W Nkw;Fyfpd; jpl;lkpl;l rjpahy; gphpf;fgl;L ,e;jpah> ghfp];jhd;> fh\;kPh;> gq;fshNj]; vd ,g;NghJ miof;fg;gLk; midj;Jg;gFjpfSk; Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Nkyhf ,];yhkpa fpyh/gj;jpd; fPo; Mog;gl;ld.

vdNt ,e;jpa tuyhw;iwj; jphpj;Jf; $Wgth;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ,e;jpah ,];yhkpa fpyhgj;jpd; XU gFjp vd;gij ehk; czu Ntz;Lk;. rpy fyp/ghf;fspd; ftdaPdj;jhy; ,e;jpah ,];yhkpa Ml;rpapd; Nkw;ghu;itapypUe;J rpWfr; rpWf tpyfj; njhlq;fpdhYk; mq;F \hPM epiyehl;lg;gl;L te;jJld; gpupj;jhdpah;fs;; ,e;jpahit ifgw;Wk; tiu mJ fpyhgj;jpd; fPNo ,Ue;J te;jJ.

K];ypk; tuyhw;whrpupauhd ,g;D fj|Ph; my; jpkp\;fp jkJ Gfo; ngw;w E}yhd my; gjhah td;ep`hahtpy; ,e;jpah jhUs; ,];yhj;jpd; xU gFjp vdf;Fwpg;gpLtJld; ,e;jpahtpd; ifg;gw;Wif Fwpj;j gpd;tUk; `jPi]Ak; Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;.

u]}y; (]y;) mth;fs; $upajhf mG `_iuuh (uop) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpwhh;fs.;

,e;j ck;kj;jpd; gil rpe;Jf;Fk;> ,e;jpahTf;Fk; mDg;ggLk;

mg;gilapy;; gq;F ngw vdf;F tha;g;G fpilj;J> ehd; \`Pjhdhy; mJ ntw;wpahFk;. ehd; ,q;F kPz;Lk; jpUk;gp te;jhy;; ehd; tpLjiyngw;w mG `{iuuhthNtd;. my;yh`; vdf;F eufpypUe;J tpLjiy mopg;ghd; (m`;kj;)

fpgp 1556 - fpgp 1605 tiuahd mf;ghpd; ( mf;gh; ,];yhj;jpypUe;J ntspNawp jPNd ,yh`p vd;w Gjpa kjj;ij cUthf;fpwhdhh;) fhyg;gFjp jtpu fpgp1205 - fpgp 1526 tiu nly;yp Ry;jhdpaf; fhyg; gFjpapYk; fpgp 1526 - 1557 Kfyhaf; fhyg;gFjpapYk; ,e;jpah fpyh/gj;jpd; xU khfhzkhfNt ,Ue;jJ.

12k; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjp fhyg;gFjpapy; f];dp> Ky;jhd;> rpe;J yh`}h;> nly;yp vd gy gFjpfis K`;kJ f`;h;; thpirahf ifgw;wj; njhlq;fpdhu;. ,thpd; n[du;y;fspy; xUtuhd FJGj;jPd; ma;gf; nly;ypapd; Ry;jhdhf gjtpNawwhu;. gpd;G 13k; E}w;whz;bd; rk;RjPd; ,y;Jkp\; fpgp1211 - fpgp 1236 vd;w Kd;dhy; Jh;fpf; (Turkic) Nghuhsp nly;ypapd; mjpfhuj;Jf;F te;jhu;. ,thpd; tUif gpd;id ehs;; Ry;jhd;fs;  midtUf;Fk; kw;iwa gFjpfisAk; ifgw;w tha;g;ig Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhLj;jJ.

mjpypUe;J njhlh;e;J te;j 100 Mz;Lfspy; nly;yp rhk;uh[pak; vd miof;fg;gl;l mt;thl;rp fpof;F Nehf;fp tq;fhsk; tiuAk;> njw;F Nehf;fp nlf;fd; tiuAk; tphptile;jJ. me;j nly;yp rhk;uh[;[paj;ij 5 NtWgl;l mur guk;giuapdh; Ml;rp  nra;jdh;. mth;fs;  ];Nyt; guk;giu(1206 - 1290)> `y;[p guk;giu(1290 1320)> Jf;yf; guk;giu(1320 1413)> ira;apj; guk;giu(1414 -1451)> Nyhb guk;giu(1451 1526) vd miof;fg;gl;ldh;.

gpd;dh; kj;jpa MrpahtpypUe;J Njhd;wpa ghghpdhy; nly;yp rhk;uh[pak; 1526 ,y; ifg;gw;wg;gl;L Kfyha rhk;uh[pak; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJld; mtNu KjyhtJ Kfyha Ml;rpahsuhf Njhw;wk; ngw;whh;. mthpd; kuzj;jpw;F gpd;dh; mthpd; kfd; `}ikAd; (1530 1556) Ml;rpf;F te;jhh;. Nghghypy; mike;Js;s mur E}yf Mtdq;fspd;gb ghgh; jdJ kfDf;F gpd;tUk; capiy vOjpdhh; vdj; njhpa tUfpwJ. ,e;j capy; ghhpd; jtWfisnay;yhk; jhz;bg;ghh;f;Fk;NghJ mth; ,];yhj;jpid ePjpahd Kiwapy; mKy;nra;aNtz;Lk; vd;gjpy; mf;fiw nfhz;bUe;jhh; vd njspthff; fhl;LfpwJ.

vdJ kfNd! gpd;tUk; tplaq;fis ftdj;jpw;nfhs;. kj hPjpahd ghugl;rq;fSf;F cdJ kdjpy; ,lq;nfhLf;fhNj. kf;fspd; kj hPjpahd czh;TfisAk;> topghLfisAk; ftdj;jpw;F nfhz;L mth;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ePjp nrYj;Jthahf. ,j;Njrj;jth;fspd; kdij nty;tjw;fhf gRf;fis mWg;gij jtph;j;Jf;nfhs;. mJ cd;id kf;fspd; ghy; neUf;fkilar;nra;Ak;. ve;j kjj;jpdhpd; topghl;bq;fisAk; mopf;fNth> Njrg;gLj;jNth $lhJ. ehl;bNy mikjp Vw;gLk;gb kf;fs; midthpd; kPJk;  ePjp nrYj;J. ,];yhk; nfhLq;Nfhz;ik mf;fpukk; vDk; MAjj;jhy; Nghjpf;fg;gLtijtpl md;G MjuT vDk; MAjj;jhy; rpwg;ghf Nghjpf;fg;glyhk;. \pah > Rd;dp NtWghLfis Gwk;js;sptpL. NtWgl;l gUt fhyq;fis fhz;gijg;NghyNt kf;fspd; NtWgl;l jd;ikfisAk; ghh;.

tuyhw;iw jphpG gLj;Jk; tuyhw;whrphpah;fs; epiwe;jpUf;Fk; #oypy; ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpy; K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rp gw;wp ehk; vq;fpUe;J jfty;fisg;ngWfpNwhk; vd;gjpy; kpfTNk ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jpa K];ypk; Ml;rpahsh;fs; rpyh; rpy ,];yhkpa rl;lq;fis gpioahfg;gad;gLj;jpdhh;fs; vd;gijAk;> rpy mePjpfis nra;jhh;fs; vd;gijAk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. vdpDk; ,e;jpah ,];yhkpa fpyh/gj;jpd; xU gFjpahf ,Ue;jJk;> mq;Nf \hpM rl;lq;fNs mKy;gLj;jg;gl;lJ vd;gJk; kiwf;f my;yJ kWf;f Kbahj cz;ikahFk;. rpy ,e;jpa khefuq;fpy; fhzg;gLk; epjpkd;w Mtzq;fis ghh;f;Fk;NghJ> kf;fspd; gpur;ridfisj;jPh;g;gjpy; ,];yhkpa \hpMr; rl;lq;fisj;jtpu NtnwhU %yhjhuj;ij me;ePjpkd;wq;fs; nfhz;bUe;jhfj; njhpatpy;iy. \hpMr;rl;lq;fspy; rpyij jtwhfg;gad;gLj;JtJ vd;gJ> ,];yhkpa fpyh/j;jpd; Ml;rpiaAk;> thyp(MSeh;fs;)>kw;Wk; Mkpy; ( efuhjpgjp) Ml;rpiaAk; ,y;yhJ nra;JtplhJ. gy `jP];fs; Ml;rpahsh;sfs; mepahaf;fhuh;fshf ,Ue;jhYk; $l mth;fs; ntspg;gilahd Fgh;hpid (Fgh; Gth) ntspg;gLj;jhJ my;yJ nra;ahJ \hPMtpid mKy;gLj;Jk tiu mth;fSf;F fl;Lg;gLk;gb $Wfpd;wd.

md]; ,g;D khypf; (uop) my;yh`;tpd; J}jh; (]y;) mth;fs; $wpajhff; $Wfpwhh;fs;. cq;fs Ml;rpahsh; fha;e;j jpuhl;irfs; Nghd;w KbAila mgp]Pdpa mbikahf ,Ue;jhy;$l mtUf;F nrtp rhAq;fs;> fl;Lg;gLq;fs; ,d;DnkhU mwptpg;gpy; mth; my;yh`;tpd; fpjhigf;nfhz;L topelj;jpdhy; vd te;Js;sJ.

mt;g; ,g;D khypf;(uop) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpwhh;fs;. u]}y;(]y;) nrhy;y ehd; Nfl;Nld;> cq;fspilNa rpwe;j jiyth;fs; vd;gth;fs; ahnud;why; ePq;fs; mth;fis Nerpg;gPh;fs;> mth;fSk; cq;fis Nerpg;ghh;fs;. mth;fSf;fhf ePq;fs; gpuhh;j;jpg;gPh;fs;> mth;fSk; cq;fSf;fhf gpuhh;j;jpg;ghh;fs;. cq;fspilNa nfl;l jiyth;fs; ahnud;why; ePq;fs; mth;fis ntWg;gPh;fs;> mth;fSk; cq;fis ntWg;ghh;fs;. ePq;fs; mth;fis rgpg;gPh;fs;> mth;fSk; cq;fisr; rgpg;ghh;fs;. mjw;F ehq;fs; Nfl;Nlhk;. vdNt mth;fs; kPJ ehq;fs; Nghh; mwptpf;ff;$lhjh? u]}y; (]y;) $wpdhh;fs;> ,y;iy> mth;fs; cq;fs; kj;jpapy; ]yh`;it epiyehl;Lk; tiu. vr;rhpf;if! vtNuDk; jk;kPJ Ml;rpnrYj;Jk; thyp ghtk; nra;tijf;fz;lhy; my;yh`;Tf;F vjpuhf nra;ag;gLk; me;j jPikia mth; ntWf;fl;Lk;. Mdhy; mth; fl;Lg;ghl;bypUe;J (igM) jdJ ifia vLf;f Ntz;lhk;. (K];ypk;)

my;yh`;tpd; J}jh;(]y;) $wpa `jPi] mGjhT+j;jpYk;> m`;kj;jpYk; gjpe;jpUf;fpwhh;fs;. mG jh;Nu! Nghh; ntw;wpg;nghUl;fis ifg;gw;wp itj;Jf;nfhz;L mjid cq;fSf;F jUtjw;F VntNuDk; xU thyp (MSeh;) kWj;jhy; me;j tpraj;jpy; ePq;fs; vd;d nra;tPh;fs;?  mth; $wpdhh; cq;fis rj;jpaj;J}Jld; mDg;gpatd; kPJ Mizahf> ehd; vdJ this cah;j;jp cq;fis te;J milAk; tiu NghuhLNtd;. ,jw;F u]}y;(]y;) mth;fs; $wpdhh;fs;. ePq;fs; nrhd;dij tpl rpwe;jnjhd;iw ehd; $wl;Lkh? ePq;fs; nghWikiaf;filg;gpbj;J vd;id te;J milAk; tiu mjidg; NgZtjhFk;.

,e;jpah fpyh/gj;jpd; xU gFjpahf ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;w cz;ikia ,e;J tuyhw;whrpupah;fs; $l Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwhh;fs;. Rrp rh;kh vd;w ,e;J vOj;jhsh; jdJ Gj;jfkhd “ Caliphs and Sultans – Religious Idealogy and Political Praxis” vd;w jdJ Gj;jfj;jpy; gpd;tUkhW $Wfpwhh;.

nly;yp uh[;[pak; (12051526) ,Uf;Fk; tiu mJ mg;ghrpa fyP/ghf;fspd; fPopUe;J K];yPk;fspd; rhk;uh[paj;jpd; xU rl;luPjpahd gFjpahfNt ,Ue;J te;jJ. Ry;jhd;fs; jk;ik fyP/ghtpd; gpujpepjpfs; vd;Nw fUjpaJld; mjd; %ykhd eph;thfj;jpw;fhd rl;l uPjpahd mq;fPfhuj;ij  gpujpepjpfs; vd;w epiyapNyNa ngw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;. eph;thfj;jpd; cr;r mjpfhuk; fyP/ghtplNk ,Ue;jjhy; Vida eph;thfpfSk; rpw;wurh;fSk; fyP/ghtpd; rhh;gpNyNa mur mjpfhuj;ij gpuNahfpj;jhh;fs;. (Caliphs and Sultans – Religious Idealogy and Political Praxis, page 247).

%d;whk; g`kdp K`kJ \h`; (1463-1482)mth;fs; cj;khdpa Ry;jhd; ,uz;lhk; K`k;kJ  mth;fisg;ghh;j;J ePq;fs; fyP/ghthf ,Uf;fj; jFjpahdth;fs; vdg; ghuhl;Lfpwhh;. mj;Jld; JUf;fpa cj;khdpa ,yr;rpidia jkJ mur ,yr;rpidahf gp[hGh; ,uhr;rpak; cgNahfg;gLj;jpapUe;jJ. F[uhj;jpy; gpurpj;jp ngw;W tpsq;fpa khypf; mah]; vd;gth; Kjyhk; Ry;jhd; ryPik cyfpd; fyP/gh vd njuptpj;jpUe;jhh;. Kfyha kd;dh;fs; JUf;fpa Ry;jhd; kPJ itj;jpUe;j kupahijia nly;ypf;Fk; ,];jhd;GYf;Fk; ,ilNa gpujpepjpfs; rpyh; nrd;W te;jik fhl;LfpwJ. Ry;jhd; RiykhDf;F `}khAd; ( ,e;jpa Ml;rpahsh; ) vOjpa fbjj;jpy; Ry;jhd; Riykhid rpwe;j Fzeyd;fs; nfhz;l fyP/gh vd th;zpj;jpUe;jJld; mtupd; Ml;rp epiyf;f Ntz;Lnkd gp;uhh;jpj;jpUe;jhh;>mtd; (my;yh`;) ck;ik cyfpd; fyPghf mDg;gp itj;jhd; vd;w Fh;Md; trdj;ijAk; mth; Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;bapUe;jhh;. Ry;jhd; ,g;uh`Pk; rh[`hDf;F mDg;gpa fbjj;jpy; jhk;  cyf murh;fspd; ghJfhtyh; vdf;Fwpg;gl;lJld; fyP/ghf ,Uf;Fk; ghf;fpaj;ijg; ngw;wpUe;jhh;. Ry;jhdplkpUe;J JUf;fpa gpujpepjpahd m`kj; mfh Xsuq;frPg;Gf;F 1690k; Mz;L xU fbjj;ij nfhz;L te;jhh;. mjpy; Ry;jhd; ,];yhj;jpd; gpujpepjp (fyP/gh) vd;gij typAWj;Jk; Fh;Mdpa trdq;fs; mlq;fpUe;jd. 1723k; Mz;L KfkJ \h`; (1719-1748) ,];jhd;Gy;Yld; njhlh;Gfis Vl;gLj;jpapUe;jhh;. K`kJ \h`; Ry;jhDf;F mDg;gpa fbjj;jpy;;. ngUk; Ry;jhd;fspd; ghJfhg;gplk;| kupahijf;Fupa kd;du;fspd; ghJfhtyd;| \upMtpd; Nghjidia gug;Ggth; vd tho;j;Jfpwhh;. ( Sasi S. Sharma, Caliphs and Sultans – Religious Ideology and Political Praxis, page 248-249).

,e;jpahTf;Fk; fpyh/ghTf;Fk; ,Ue;j njhlh;ig rpy njhy;nghUl;fs; $l vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpd;wd. cjhuzkhf ,e;jpahtpd; thypahf ,Ue;j Ry;jhd; my;jkh\; (1211-1236) cila fhyj;jpy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l nts;sp ehzaq;fspy; xU gf;fj;jpy; fyP/gh my;K];jd;]pupd; ngah; nghwpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJld; kWGwk; fyP/ghtpd; cjtpahsh; vd;w my;jkh\;\pd; ngah; nghwpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

1258y; gf;jhj; tPo;jg;gl;L fyP/gh my; K];jd;]pu; kuzkile;j NghJk; mth; ngah; nghwpf;fg;gl;l ehzaq;fNs ,e;jpahtpy;; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L te;jd.

n\a;f; m`kj; rpupe;jp Nghd;w ngUk; ,];yhkpa mwpQh;fs; $l ,e;jpah fpyh/j;jpd; fPo;; ,Uf;Fk;NghNj cUthfpapUe;jdh;.  gpf;`{j;Jiwapd; mwpQuhf tpsq;fpa ,th;  K[j;jpj;; my;/g; jhdp vd;Wk; mwpag;gl;lhh;. mth; nkhj;jkhf 536 fbjq;fis cj;khdpa Ml;rpahsUf;F mDg;gpapUejhh;. MJ NjhFf;fg;gl;l fbjq;fs; my;yJ kf;Jghj; vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ. mf;fbjq;fspD}lhf mth; jdJ MNyhridfis fpyh/gj;jpw;F toq;fpapUe;jik Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

kw;WnkhUth;jhd; \h`; tyPAy;yh`; nl`;yhtp (1703-1762) vd;W miof;fg;gl;l ,e;jpahtpy; ngupJk; kjpf;fg;gl;l cykhthFk;. njw;fhrpah kw;Wk; Vida gFjpfspYk; gy ,];yhkpa ,af;fq;fs; mtiu Vw;W kjpg;gspj;jdh;. ,];yhk; njhlh;ghd gy;NtW jiyg;Gf;fspy; mth; vOjpAs;shh;. mth; fhyj;jpypUe;j gy mwpQh;fs; Fh;Mid mjd; %y nkhopdhd mwgpNy khj;jpuk; fw;f Ntz;Lk; vdf; fUjpa NghJ Fh;Mid cUjpYk;| rk];fpujj;jpYk; nkhopngah;j;j mthpd; nkhopngah;g;Gf;fs; fhyj;jhy; Ke;jpaitfshFk;. fhyg;Nghf;fpy; mtuJ nraw;ghl;il ,e;jpa cykhf;fs; Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;.


`{f;fj; my; gyfh mk;j; my;-jt;`Pkj; my;-,yh`pah vd;gJ mtupd; Gfo;ngw;w ,d;ndhU Mf;fkhFk;. ,yhyj; my; f/gh vd;w jdJ Mf;fj;jpy; fpyh/gj;ijg; gw;wpAk; mth; vOjpapUe;jhh;. mjpy; ,];yhj;ij epiyehl;LtjpD}lhfTk;> mjd; fpisfshd khh;f;f fy;tp> khh;ff; fpupiffis Nkw;ghh;it nra;Ak; epWtdk;> [p`hj;; vDk; fl;likg;G> ,uhZt topelhj;jy;> ePjpj;Jiw cUthf;fKk; rl;l mKyhf;fKk;> Fw;wr;nray; fl;Lg;ghL Nghd;wtw;wpDlhf kf;fspd; nghJeyd;fspd; mbg;gilapy; cUthd Xh; jiyikj;JtNk fpyh/ghthFk;. ,e;j midj;J eltbf;iffisAk; J}jh; (]y;) mth;fis gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;fpd;Nwhk; vd;w mbg;gilapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glNtz;Lk;. vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whh;.

tpyhah mk;khTf;fhd (General Governorship) ,];yhkpa mDkjp.

Fy/ghf;fshy; ,e;jpa cgfz;lj;Jf;F tpyhah mk;kh toq;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. ,J \upahthy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sgl;l xU eilKiwahFk;. Fy/ghf;fs; tpyhahf;fis (khfhzq;fis) gw;wp tprhupf;Fk; nghWg;gpy; ftdaPdkha; ,Ue;jJ cz;iknad;gJld; fth;zh;fis Neubahf njupT nra;ahky; gpuhe;jpaq;fspy; jhkhf Ml;rpf;F te;jth;fis mth;fs; Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhh;fs;. ,e;j fth;zh;fis fyP/gh Vw;Wf;nfhz;ljhy; ,th;fSf;F rl;lG+h;t mjpfhuk; fyP/ghthy; toq;fg;gl;lJ.

fpyh/gj;jpd; tPo;r;rpf;F gpd;dh; jiyrpwe;j cykhf;fshy; vOjg;gl;l (“The Ruling System of Islam”) ,];yhkpa Ml;rp Kiw vd;w Gj;jfj;jpy; ,U tifahd tpyhahf;fSk; mtw;Wf;fhd ,];yhkpa Mjhuq;fSk; tptupf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. ,e;j Ehypd; fPo;tUk; gFjpfs; ,jid typAWj;jp epw;fpd;wd.

fth;zh; fyP/ghtpd; cjtpahsh;: fyP/gh toq;fpa mjpfhuj;jpd;gbNa mth; nraw;gLthh;. tpyhahf;fSf;F tiuaiwfs; ,y;iy. MfNt Ml;rp rk;ge;jkhf fyP/ghthy; epakpf;fg;gl;l vtUk; fth;zuhfyhk;.

fth;zh; ve;j gFjpf;F epakpf;fg;gl;Ls;shh; vd;gij tiuaWf;FkhW egp(]y;) mth;fs; $wpAs;shh;fs;.

tpyhahf;fs; ,Utifg;gLk;. Xd;W nghJthdJ (general)> kw;iwaJ rpwg;ghdJ (specific). nghJ tpyhahtpy; tpyhahtpw;Fl;gl;l Ml;rp njhlh;ghd  midj;Jk; cs;slfg;gl;bUf;Fk;. tpyhahtpf;F xUth; epakpf;fg;gLfpwhh; vd;whh; me;j ehl;bd; my;yJ khfhzj;jpd; ,khuh mtUf;F toq;fg;gLtjhff; nfhs;shky; ,q;F kf;fspd; rhjhuz nraw;ghLfs; Nkw;ghh;it nra;ag;gLk;. ,q;F Nkw;ghh;it nra;tjw;fhd nghJthd nghWg;G mtUf;F toq;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;. rpwg;ghd ,khuhitg; nghUj;jtiu fth;zh; ,uhZtj;ij eph;tfpj;jy;> kf;fis eph;tfpj;jy;> vy;iyfisg; ghJfhj;jy;> ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Foe;ijfspd; ghJfhg;G Nghd;w tplaq;fspNyNa mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;L Vidait fyp/ghthy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk;. mtUf;F ePjpj;Jiw njhlh;gpNyh> fu[; (epythp) kw;Wk; rjfh t#ypg;G Nghd;w mjpfhuq;fs; ,Uf;fhJ. u]{y; (]y;) mth;fs; nghJthd thypia epajpj;jjw;F rhd;whf mkh; gpd; `];ik (uop) nakDf;F epakpj;jikia nfhs;syhk;. mNj Nghd;W myp gpd; mGjhypig (uop) nakdpd; ePjpj;Jiwf;F tpNrlkhf epakpj;jikia tpNrl (tpyhah fh];]h) cjhuzkhff;nfhs;syhk;.

Fy/ghf;fSk; ,J njhlh;gpy; u]{y;(]y;) mth;fisg; gpd;gw;wpapUe;jdh;. ckh; gpd; fj;jhg; (uyp) mth;fs; KMtpah gpd; mG Rgpahid(uop) \hkpw;F nghJthd thypahf epakpj;jpUe;jJld;> myp (uop) mth;fs; mg;Jy;yh`; gpd; mg;ghi](uop) g]uhTf;fhd rpwg;G thypahf epakpj;jpUe;jhh;. ,q;F mg;Jy;yh`; gpd; mg;gh]{f;F(uop) epjpj;Jiw jtph;e;j kw;iwa tplaq;fspy; mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;bUe;jJld; epjpj;Jiwg; nghWg;G rpahjpw;F toq;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

,uz;;L tifahd tpyhahf;fs;; Kd;G fhzg;gl;ld. Xd;W ryh`;Tf;fhd tpyhah kw;iwaJ fu[{f;fhd tpyhah. ,jdhNyNa tuyhw;W Ehy;fspy; tpyhahf;fSf;F ,U NtWgl;l ngaHfs; cgNahfpf;fg;gl;ld: xd;W ryh`;Tf;fhd ,khuh> kw;iwaJ ryh`;Tf;Fk; fu[{f;Fkhd tpyhah. ,q;F ryh`; vd;w gjk; kf;fis njhOtpg;gJ vd;gij kl;Lk; Fwpf;fhJ khwhf epjpj;Jiw jtpHe;j rfy tplaq;fs; njhlHghd Ml;rpiaAk; Fwpf;Fk;. ryh`; kw;Wk; `uh[; Mfpa ,uz;L tpyhaf;fSk; xUtUf;F toq;fg;gl;lhy; mJ nghJ tpyhah(tpyhah mk;khthf) fUjg;gLk;. xU tpyhah ryh`; my;yJ fu[{f;F kl;Lk;  tiuaWf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jhy; mJ rpwg;ghd tpyhahthff;fUjg;gLk;. tpyhahf;fis nghJ tpyhah vd;Nwh rpwg;G tpyhah vd;Nwh ePjpj;Jiw tpyhah vd;Nwh ,uhZtj;jpw;fhd tpyhah vd;Nwh tiuaWg;gjw;fhd mjpfhuk; fyP/ghTf;F cz;L. thypf;fhd flikfis \uPM tiuaWf;ftpy;iy. ,jdhy; thypf;Fhpa vy;yhf;flikfisAk; nra;a Ntz;ba mtrpak; mtUf;F ,y;iy. vdpDk; nghJthf thypapDila flikia Ml;rp GuptJ vdyhk;. NkYk; mtH fyP/ghtpd; cjtpahsuhf ,Ug;gJld; Fwpg;gpl;l gFjpf;F mkPuhfTk; ,Ug;ghH. ,it midj;Jk; u]{y;(]y;) mtHfspd; nraw;ghLfspy; ,Ue;J ngwg;gl;l KbTfshFk;. thypia nghJthd thypahfNth rpwg;ghd thypahfNth  epakpf;f \uPMtpy; ,lKz;L

u]{y;(]y;) mtHfs; /gHth gpd; %rhapf;if(uop) Kuhj;> RigH kw;Wk; kp];`hf; Nfhj;jpuq;fSf;F epakpj;jikAk; mtUld; fhypj; gpd; raPj; gpd; my; Mi](uop) rjfhTf;fhd thypahf mDg;gpaikAk; ,g;D `p\hkpd; rPuhtpy; fhzyhk;.                    

u]{y;(]y;) mth;fs; rpahj; gpd; ygPj; my; md;rhupia(uop)  rjfhTf;fhd thypahf `j;ukt;j;Jf;F mDg;gpaikAk; myp (uop) e[;uhTf;F rjfhitAk; [p];ahitAk; t#ypf;f mDg;gpaikAk; mtiuNa nakDf;F ePjpgjpahf mDg;gpaikAk; my; `hf;fpkpy; ghh;f;fyhk;.

u]{y;(]y;) mtHfs; KMj; gpd; [giy(uop) my; [djpd; kf;fspw;F FHMidAk; ,];yhkpa rl;ljpl;lq;fisAk; fw;gpg;gjw;Fk; mtHfSf;fpilNa jPh;g;G toq;Ftjw;Fk; mDg;gpitj;jhHfs; vd;w tplak; ,];jpMg; vd;w Gj;jfj;jpy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. nakdpd; Mkpy;fsplkpUe;J rjfh t#ypg;gjw;fhd mjpfhuKk; mtUf;F toq;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

u]{y;(]y;) mtu;fs; c`Jf;F gilnaLj;jNghJ NghJ ,g;D ck; kf;Jhik(uop)  kjPdhtpd; ryhtpw;fhf epakpj;jikia ,g;D `p\hkpd; rPuhtpy; fhzyhk;. (The Ruling System in Islam) ”

,e;jpahit gphpj;jhdpah Mf;fpukpg;Gr;nra;jYk;  ,e;jpa K];ypk;fspd; vjph; eltbf;iffSk;.

fhydpj;Jtthjpfspd; njhlHr;rpahd rjpfSk; K];yPk;fspd; mwpthu;e;j tPo;r;rpAk; ,e;jpa cgfz;lj;ij fhgpu;fspd; Mjpf;fj;jpd; fPo; nfhz;Lte;jd. fp.gp 1600 ,y; fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;gdp gpupl;;ldhy; ,e;jpahtpy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. K];ypk;fsp;d; epyq;fisAk; tsj;ijAk; INuhg;gpa fhydpj;Jt thjpfs; gbg;gbahf tpOq;Ftjw;F Muk;gpj;j me;j fhyg;gFjpapNyNa RNjrpfshd K];ypk;fSf;Fk; K];ypky;yhjtHfSf;Fk; ,ilNa  gifAzHit tsHg;gjw;Fk; ,th;fs; Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. gpd;dh; 1819 ,y; gpupj;jhdpah ,e;jpahit Neubahf Mf;fpukpj;j NghJ K];ypk;fspd; fLikahd vjph;g;ig re;jpf;f NeHe;jJ. ,e;j Aj;jj;jpy; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; gpupj;jhdpa Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfSf;Fk; ,ilNa ntw;wp Njhy;tpfs; khwp khwp te;jd. gpupj;jhdpaH RNjrpfshf ,Ue;j rpy ,e;Jf;fspdJk;> rPf;fpaHfspdJk;> ngsj;jHfspdJk; cjtpfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;ldH. vdpDk; 1846 tiu K];ypk;fSld; Nghuhba 27 tUl fhyg;gFjpapy; gpupj;jhdpauhy; mq;F epiyahd fl;Lg;ghl;il nfhz;L tu Kbatpy;iy.

,f;fhyg;gFjpapy; Kfyha tpyhahtpd;; mjpfhuk; ,e;jpahtpd; rpy gFjpfspy; gytPdkilaj; njhlq;fpaJ. rpy Ml;rpahsh;fs; ,];jhd;Gy;ypy; ,Ue;J fpyh/ghtpd; cjtpiaf; NfhupdhHfs;. cjhuzkhf 1779 ,y; fd;Dhupd; (cannore)  kfhuhzp> Ry;jhd; mg;Jy; `kPJf;F jd;id Mq;fpyf; fpof;fpj;jpaf;fk;gdpapd; Mf;fpukpg;gpypUe;J ghJfhf;FkhW Nfhhp Xu; ,uh[je;jpuj; jftiy mDg;gpaikiaf; $wyhk;. jpg;G fy;jhd; jd;id ik#upd; Ml;rpahsuhf mq;fPfupf;FkhW fyP/ghtplkpUe;J xU fbjj;ijf; Nfhupg; ngw;Wf;nfhz;lhh;.

gpupj;jhdpa fhydpj;Jtthjpfs; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J ,];yhkpa Ml;rpia xopj;j NghJk; ,e;jpa K];ypk;fs; ,];jhd;Gy;ypUe;j fyP/ghTf;F tpRthrkhfNt ,Ue;J te;jdh;. mj;Jld; ira;apj; m`;kj; \`Pj; Nghd;Nwhh; gphpj;jhdpah;fSf;nfjpuhf [p`hij  njhlh;e;J te;jdh;. cykhf;fSk; Fwpg;ghf anf];ldpy; (gphpj;jhdpah;fspd; ,e;jpa Ml;rpf;fhyg;gFjpapy; N`ul;> fe;j`hh;> rhGy;> f];dp kw;Wk; fhGy; Nghd;w gFjpfis cs;slf;fpa Mg;fhdp];jhdpd; fpof;F gFjpahd g];J}d; Nfhj;jpuj;jth;fspd; gFjpahFk;).

fpNuf;f JUf;fpag; Nghhpy; c];khdpa fpyh/gh ntw;wp ngw;wjd; Kfkhf Ry;jhid nfhsutpg;gjw;fhf ,e;jpa K];yPk;fs; nksyhdh mg;Jy; ghhpapd; jiyikapy; fPo; yf;Ndhtpy; $baijAk; ghy;fdpYk; jpupNghypapYk; fpyh/ghTf;F gpd;dilT Vw;gl;l NghJ fpyh/ghit tPo;j;j Nkw;fj;jpa rf;jpfs; Nkw;nfhz;l nray;fis ,e;jpa  K];yPk;fs; vjph;j;jijAk; ,q;Nf Fwpg;gpLtJ nghUj;jkhdjhFk;.

,e;jpahtpd; Gfo;ngw;w gpupj;jhdpa vjph;g;ghsUk; fpyh/gj;jpd; MjuthsUkhd nksyhdh K`k;kJ myp nas\h; (u`;)  ypq;fd; fy;Y}hpapy; jdJ gl;lg;gbg;ig Kbj;J tpl;L  1914y; London Times ,y; ntspte;j xU fl;Liuf;Fg; gjpybahf The Choice of Turks vd;w fl;Liuia vOjpdhh;fs;. 1912y; ghy;fhd; Aj;jk; njhlq;fpa NghJ ghjpf;fg;gl;l JUf;fpaUf;F cjtpfisf; NfhupaJld; mq;F xU kUj;Jtf; FOtpdiuAk; mDg;gpdhh;fs;. ,itnay;yhk; vt;thW ,e;jpa K];ypk;fs; K];ypk; ck;kj;jpd; xNu jiyikahd fpyh/gj;jpd; kPJ jkJ KOikahd mf;fiwia itj;jpUe;jhh;fs; vd;gij vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ.

,e;jpahtpy; Gfo;ngw;w ,];yhkpa gy;fiyfofkhd jhUy; cYhk; jpNahge;jpd; jiytuhd n\a;`; my; `pe;j;  nksyhdh k`;%j;; `]d;> ghy;fd; kw;Wk; jpupNghyp Aj;jj;jpy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;F cjTtjw;fhf epjp Nrfupj;jhh;fs;. ,th; Fwpj;J nksyhdh `{ird; m`;kj; kjdp gpd;tUkhW $Wfpwhh;.
ghy;fd; kw;Wk; jpupNghypa Aj;jk; nksyhdh k`;%j; `]d; kdjpy; fLikahd Nrhfj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf mth;fs; jhUy; cY}kpd; ];jhgfhpy; xUtuhd nksyhdh fhrpk;;  edhTl;  (Nrhtpaj; JUf;fpg; Nghupy; fyP/ghTld; ,ize;J gzpahw;wpath; ) gpd;gw;wpa ghijia jhDk; njhpT nra;J nfhz;lhh;fs;. mth;fs; jd;id ,];yhj;Jf;fhf mh;gzpj;jJld; c];khdpa rhk;uh[paj;Jf;F jd;dhyhd cjtpfs; gytw;iw nra;jhh;fs;. mth;fs;  jhUy; cYhik %b tpLkhW gj;th toq;fpaJld; c];khdpa rhk;uh[paj;jpw;fhf epjp Nrfhpj;jJld;  khzth; FOf;fis JUf;fpf;;F mDg;gpaJld;  ,jpy; xU FOTf;F jhNd jiyik jhq;fpr; nrd;whh;fs;. vdpDk; mth; jhd; c];khdpa rhk;uh[paj;Jf;F nra;j cjtpfshy; jpUg;j;jpailatpy;iy. ghy;fd; Nghupd; vjph;tpisTfs; ,tiug; Nghd;w K];ypk; ,yl;rpathjpfisr; nghpJk; Nrhh;tila nra;jJ. INuhg;gpah;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; xspia  mizf;f rjp nra;tij ,th;fs; czh;e;J nfhz;lhh;fs;. NkYk; ];Fapg; Nghd;w gpupj;jhdpa Ml;rpahsh;fs; K];ypk;fSf;F nra;j mepahaKk;> u\;ah;fs; K];ypk;fSf;F ,ioj;j nfhLikfSk;> JUf;fpapy; Vw;gl;l gpsTk; nts;isf;fhuh;fspd; ePz;l ehs; fdT edthfg;NghfpwJ vd;w ek;gpf;ifia ,th;fspilNa Vw;gLj;jpaJ (Nagsh – e -  hayat , Vol2 , pg . 140 )

Kjyhk; cyfg;Nghh; fhyg;gFjpapy; ,e;jpag;gs;spthry;fspy; njhlh;r;rpahd njhOiffs; ,lk;ngw;wJld; mth;fspd; Fj;ghf;fspy; Ry;jhdpdJ eyd; Ntz;bAk; mtuJ ,uhZtj;jpd; ntw;wpNtz;bAk; gpuhh;j;jidAk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,d;DnkhU jiy rpwe;j jiytuhd nksyhdh nrsfj; mypaplk; Vd; cq;fsJ Fj;ghit JUf;fpa Ry;jhdpd; ngauhy; XJfpwPh;fs;? vdf; Nfl;fg;gl;lNghJ ,];yhkpa fyP/ghTk; JUf;fp Ry;jhDk; xNu eguhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ vd;idf; Fiw $w KbahJvdf;$wpdhh;fs;.(The Khilafah movement, Gail minault, Oxford University press, 1982,p.55 ).

,e;jpa K];yPk;fspd; Kaw;rpia fpyh/gh mq;fPfhpj;jJld; jdf;F cjtpnra;AkhWk;> gphpj;jhdpaUf;nfjpuhf NghuhLkhWk; Nfl;Lf;nfhz;lJ. ,];jhd;Gy;ypd; gpuRhpf;fg;gl;L te;j fpyh/ghtpd; muhgpag; gj;jpupifahd my;[itj;,d; xU gpujpia ,];jhd;Gy;ypUe;J Rkhu; 8000 iky; njhiytpYs;s ,e;jpahtpd; jhUy; cY}k; khzth;fSf;fhf mg;gj;jphpifapd; Kfhikahsh;  mDg;gp te;jhh.(sawaneh Qasmi;Vol 2, p.329).

ehk; Kd;G Fwpg;gpl;l n\a;`; my; `pe;j; nksyhdh k`;%j; `]d; fpyh/ghtpw;F Neub MjuT toq;fpaJld; mjd; nraw;ghl;bw;fhfTk; fLikahf cioj;jhh;. mth; `p[h]pw;F gazk; nra;jnghOJ fpyh/ghtpd; thypiaAk;> fyP/ghtpd; cjtpahsh;fisAk; kf;fhtpy; re;jpj;jhh;. gphpj;jhdpahTf;nfjpuhf ,e;jpahtpy; NghuhLk; K];yPk;fSf;F cjTkhW Nfhhpa  N\a;`pw;F thyp rpy Mtzq;fis toq;fpdhh;. ,jpy; Kf;fpakhdJ mth; ,e;jpa K];yPk;fSf;F  vOjpa Nfhupf;ifahFk;. mjpy; gphpj;jhdpahTf;nfjpuhd Nghuhlj;ijj;njhlh;tw;fhf n\a;`; my; `pe;ij ghuhl;bapUe;jJld; K];yPk;fs; jkJ cjtpfis mjpfkhf  toq;fNtz;Lk; vdTk; topAWj;jpapUe;jhh;. fpyh/gj;jpypUe;J ,e;jpa K];yPk;fSf;F jhk; nghUSjtp mDg;gtjhfTk; mjpy; mth; cWjpaspj;jpUe;jhh;. kf;fhtpd; thyp vOjpa ,e;j Mtdk; fhyPg; ekh`; vd;W mwpag;gLfpwJ. 1334 ,y; `[;i[ epiwNtw;wpa n\a;`; my; `pe;j; fpyh/ghtpd; mjpfhhpfshd md;th; gh\hitAk;> [khy; gh\hitAk;; re;jpj;jhh;. gphpj;jhdpahTf;nfjpuhfg; NghuhLk; ,e;jpa K];yPk;fis ghuhl;b md;th; gh\hTk; mth;fSf;F fbjk; vOjpdhh;. fhyPg; ekh`; I xj;jpUe;j ,f;fbjKk; gphpj;jhdpah;fSf;nfjpuhd ,e;jpa K];yPk;fspd; Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F  cj;khdpah fpyh/gh nghUSjtp nra;tjhfTk; cWjpaspj;jpUe;jJ. NkYk;  cj;khdpa fpyh/ghtp;d; Copah;fSk; nghJkf;fSk; n\a;`; my; `p;e;jplk; ek;gpf;if itf;FkhWk; mtUf;F nghUSjtp nra;AkhWk; ,f;fbjj;jpy; Ntz;lg;gl;bUe;jdh;. ,f;fbjjjpd; gpujpfs; ,e;jpahTf;F ,ufrpakhd flj;jg;gl;lJld; gphpj;jhdpa csTj;Jiwapd; rthy;fisAk; jhz;b anf];ld;; KOJk; tpdpNahfpf;fg;gl;ld [The prisoners of malta(Asiran-e-malte),maulana Ulama-a1-Hind ]

gphpj;jhdpahtpd; gpd;dzpapypUe;J ,af;fpa \hPg; `}irdpdJk; mtuJ Ml;fspdJk; rjpia ,e;jpa K];yPk;fs; mwpe;jpUe;jJld; mth;fs; gphpj;jhdpahthy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l `p[h]{f;fhd czTj;jiliaAk; fLikahf vjph;jhh;fs;.

Colonel T.E. Lawrence ,d; tprkg;gpur;rhuq;fSk;> mth; mugpapy; Mw;wpa czh;r;rp G+h;tkhd ciuAk;> \hPg; `{irDf;Fk; Nrh; n`d;wp nkf;NkfDf;FkpilNa ,lk;ngw;w ufrpa xg;ge;jKk; `p[h]py; trpj;j kf;fis JUf;fpf;F vjpuhf fpsh;e;njo vt;tpjj;jpYk; cjttpy;iy. ,e;j ,yf;if mila gphpj;jhdpa muR ,d;Dk;gy fhl;Lkpuhz;bj;jdkhf kdpjhgpkhdkw;w gy jpl;lq;fis ifahz;lJ.

mtw;iw n\a;`; my;; ,];yhk; nksyhdh `}ird; m`;kj; kjhdp gpd;tUkhW tpsf;Ffpwhh;.

`p[h]{f;fhd czT toq;fy; epWj;jg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. `p[h]{f;fhd filrp czTf;fg;gy; `p[;up 1334 \ghpy; te;jile;jJ. czT toq;fy; epWj;jg;gl;ljhy; tpiyfs; ngUkstpy; cah;e;jd. kf;fs; gl;bdpapy; thbdhh;fs;. ,e;jpa K];yPk;fspd; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; fhuzkhf `p[;hp 1334 [khjp my; ]hdpapy; Fairozi Aganboat rpy Mapuk; mhprp %l;ilfSld; fy;fj;jhtpypUe;J Gwg;gl;lJ.

me;j %l;ilfs; $l Vld; JiwKfj;jpy; gyte;jkhf jiuapwf;fg;gl;ld. `p[h]pypUe;J cj;khdpa rhk;uh[;[paj;jpd; Mjpf;fk; Kw;whf ,y;yhky; Nghd gpwNf mit [pj;jhtpw;Fs; mDkjpf;fg;gl;ld.

(The Prisonesrs of Malta (Asinain-e-malta), maulana Syed Muhammed miah, jamiat ulama-1-Hing, English edition, P.45)

n\a;`; my; `pe;j;; nksyhdh k`;%j; `rid gphpj;jhdpahh;fs;; 3 Mz;Lfs; Nkhy;lhtpy; rpiwapyilj;jhh;. c];khdpah fpyh/ghit tpl;Lf;nfhLf;fhikAk;> rj;jpaj;jpd; ghy; cWjpahf epd;wikANk ,jw;F fhuzkhdJ. c];khdpa fpyh/gj;Jldhd tpRthrj;ij epWj;jptpl;L \hPg; `}irDf;F Mjuthf gj;th xd;iw toq;FkhWk; gphpj;jhdpah mtiu kpfTk; gyte;jg;gLj;jpaJ.

n\a;`; my;; `pe;j; `p[;hp 1335 rgh; khjk;  gpiw 23 ,y; (21> ngg;uthp 1917) JNuhfp \hPg; `{irdpdhy; kf;fhtpy; itj;J ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhh;. ,tUld; Nrh;j;J nksyhdh `{ird; m`;kj; kjhdp> nksyhdh m]P]; Fy;> nksyhdh `f;fPk; E];uj; `{ird;> nksyhdh th`Pj; m`;kj; Nghd;NwhLk;  gphpj;jhdpa murpdhy; rpiwg;gpbf;fg;gl;L nfa;NuhtpD}lhf khy;lhtpw;F mDg;gg;gl;ldh;.

nksyhdh k`;%j; `]d; 3 Mz;LfSk; 4 khjq;fSk; rpiwthrk; mDgtpj;j gpd; tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;L 1920 [{d; 8 ,y; gk;ghia te;jile;jhu;. ,th; khy;lhtpy; ,Ue;J jpUk;gpa mNj fhyg;gFjpapNyNa ,e;jpahtpy; fpyh/gj; ,af;fk; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;jJ.

ep]huJy; khhpg;( my; Fh;Md; fw;wYf;fhd epiyak; ) `p[;hp 1321 ,y; K[h`pj; nksyhdh cigJy;yh`; rpe;jp mth;fspd; jiyikapy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,];yhj;Jf;F vjpuhd gpur;rhuj;ij Kiwabf;Fk; tifapy; K];yPk; Gj;jp[Ptpfis gapw;Wtpj;J ,];yhkpa rpe;jidfis gug;GtJ ,e;j epiyaj;jpd; Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j ,af;fj;jhy; gphpj;jhdpah;fs; vjph;nfhz;l rthy;fis gphpj;jhdpa murhq;fj;jpd; kj;jpa csTj;Jiwapd; The petition of the Brithsh Queen Vs Moulana Obaidullah Sindhi vd;w fPo;tUk; mwpf;ifapy; fhzyhk;.

nksyhdh cigJy;yh`; rpe;jp  jhUs; cY}k; jpNahge;ij jdJ kp]dhpfspd; (K[h`PjPd;fs;) gapw;rp Kfhkhfg; ghtpf;f KbahjpUe;jJ. MfNt ,e;j ,yf;if miltw;fhf xU kj;u]hit (ep]huJy; khhpg;) nly;ypapy; mikf;f mth; KbTnra;jhh;. mjd; ngaUf;F xg;g Fh;Mid rhpahd Kiwapy; Nghjpg;gNj mjd; Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. mq;F mugpAk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ljJ. ( The petiton of the Brithsh Queen Vs Moulana Obaidullah Sindhi, section 47 )

ep]huJy;  khhpg;> ,e;j NghjidfSf;F Gwk;ghf Gul;rpf;fhuu;fs; ,ufrpakhff; $LkplkhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. (The petition of the British queen vs Maulana Obaidullah sindhi, section 20)

,e;jpahtpypUe;J gpupj;jhdpa Ml;rpia Jilj;njhpAk;; Nehf;Fld; nraw;gl;l K];ypk; Gul;rpf;fhuu;fspd; $Lk; ,lkhf ep]huJy; khupg; ,Ue;jjhf gpupj;jhdpah;fs;; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wdu;. ,jpy; `f;fPk;  m[;ky; fhd;> Dr. Kf;jhu; m`;kj; md;rhup> nksyhdh nrsfj; myp> K`k;kJ myp n[sfh;> nksyhdh ]gh; myp fhd;> nksyhdh mGy; fyhk; Mrhj; MfpNahUk; Nkw;$wpa egh;fspy; mlq;Fth;.

ntspehl;L ,wf;Fkjpfisg; Gwf;fzpf;FkhWk;> gpupj;jhdpa murhq;fj;Jf;nfjpuhf xj;Jioahikiaf; filg;gpbf;FkhWk; K];ypk; cykhf;fSk;> rpe;jidahsh;fSk; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;ldh;. ,jw;F Mjuthf kf;fisj; jpul;Lk; Nehf;fpy; njhopyhsu; khehL(Mo’tamar al-ansar) vd;w ngaupYk; nksyhdh mg;Jy; fyhk; Mrhjpd;  gj;jpupifahd my;`pyhypd; ngaupYk;> nksyhdh Kfk;kJ myp n[sfupd; gj;jpupifahd The Comrade ,d; ngaupYk; $l;lq;fs; xoq;F nra;ag;gl;ld. NkYk; ,th;fs; gpupj;jhdpa muRf;nfjpuhd Mf;fq;fis jkJ gj;jpupiffspy; gpuRupj;jhh;fs; vd;w Fw;wj;jpw;fhf nksyhdh mg;Jy; fyhk; Mrhj; mth;fSk; nksyhdh K`kJ myp n[s`h; mth;fSk; fp.gp. 1911 1915k; Mz;Ltiu rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;.

vdNt Nkw;$wpa Mjhuq;fspypUe;J ghh;f;Fk;NghJ ,e;jpa  K];ypk; jiyth;fSk;> Gj;jp[PtpfSk; fpyh/ghTf;F toq;fpa MjuT re;Njfj;jpw;F ,lkpd;wp cWjpg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. K];ypk;fis ghJfhg;gjw;fhd xNu ths; c];khdpa Ry;jhdplNk ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W nksyhdh mg;Jy; fyhk; Mrhj; mth;fs; jdJ gj;jpupifahd my; `pyhypy; 1912 etk;gH 6  Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhHfs;. NkYk; fpyh/gj; vd;gJ \hpMtpd; xU Kf;fpa tplakhFk;. mJ t`p %yk; flikahf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; mJ my;yh`;tpd; epWtd mikg;GkhFk;. mjd; mjpfhhpfSf;F fl;Lg;gLtJ gh;s; MFk;. vdTk; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhh;fs;.

fpyh/gh ,af;fk;

fpyh/gh ,af;fk; (1919-1924) 1919 nrg;nlk;gupy; nksyhdh K`k;kJ myp mtHfspd; rNfhjuH nrsfj; myp> nksyhdh mg;Jy; fyhk; Mrhj;> Dr.Kf;jhH m`kj; mdrhup> `];uj; nkh`hdp MfpNahuhy;  Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. fpyh/ghit vt;thwhtJ ghJfhg;gNj mtHfs; Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. fpyh/gh khehLfis ,e;jpahtpd; tlf;F efuq;fspy; mtHfs; xOq;F nra;jhHfs;. fpyh/gh ,af;fj;jpypUe;j mwpQHfs; NtWgl;l gpd;dzpapypUe;jtHfs; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. cjhuzkhf nksyhdh mg;Jy; fyhk; Mrhj; mtHfs; ifH jf;yPjp (kj;`g;ig jf;yPj; nra;tJ jLf;fg;gl;lJ) vd;w epiyg;ghl;bypUe;jth;. vdpDk; nksyhdh K`k;kJ `]d; `dgp kj`ig rhHe;jpUe;jhH. MapDk; jkJ NtWghl;il fle;J ,tHfs; midtUk; fpyh/ghit ghJfhf;Fk; Nehf;fj;jpy; xUq;fpize;jdh;.

,jd;gb 1919 gk;gha; fpyh/gj; FO ,U Kf;fpa ,yf;Ffis tFj;jJ. KjyhtJ JUf;fpa Ry;jhdpd; ngsjPf uPjpahd mjpfhuj;ij njhlh;e;J epiynfhs;s typAWj;JtJ> ,uz;lhtJ ,];yhkpa Gdpjj; jsq;fs; kPjhd Ry;jhdpd; fl;Lg;ghl;il cWjpg; gLj;JtJ.

1920y; fy;fj;jhtpy; ,lk;ngw;w tq;fhs khfhz fpyh/gh khehl;by; jiyik ciuia Mw;wpa nksyhdh Mrhj; fpyh/ghtpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; gw;wp gpd;tUkhW ciuahw;wpdhHfs;. ,e;j ,af;fj;jpd; ,yf;F> K];ypk; r%fj;ij rupahd ghijapy; xOq;Fg;gLj;jp> ePjpia epiyehl;b rkhjhdj;ij cUthf;fp> ,iwtdpd; thHj;ijfis cyfk; KOf;fg; gutr; nra;tjhFk;. ,itaidj;ijAk; nra;tjw;F mjpfhukpf;f fyP/gh ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. vd mtHfs; $wpdhHfs;. ,khk; ,y;yhj tho;T ,];yhkpa Kiwapy; ,Uf;fhJ vdTk;> ,jdhy; kuzj;jpd; gpd; ,iwtdpd; jz;lidia vjpHNehf;f Ntz;bapUf;Fk; vdTk; mtHfs; cWjpahf ek;gpdhHfs;.

1920y; k];yh-V-fpyhgj; vd;w E}iy nksyhdh Mrhj; mtHfs; ntspapl;lhHfs;. mjpy; fpyh/gh ,y;yhky; ,];yhj;jpd; ,Ug;G rhj;jpakpy;iy ,e;jpa K];ypk;fs; mjw;fhf KOKaw;rpAld; ciof;f Ntz;Lk; vdf; $wpapUe;jhHfs;.

,uz;L tif m`;fhk; \upMf;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. xd;W jdpg;gl;l xt;nthUtUk; epiwNtw;w Ntz;ba gh;SfSk; th[pg;fSkhFk;. kw;iwaJ ck;kj;jpdhy; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;bajhFk;. ,J xU $l;Lg;nghWg;ghFk;. ehLfis ifgw;wy;> murpay; nghUshjhu rl;lq;fis tFj;jy; vd;gd ,jpy; mlq;Fk; vd ,Nj Gj;jfj;jpy; nksyhdh Mrhj; mth;fs; $wpAs;shh;fs;.

K];ypk;fspd; murpaiyAk; kjj;ijAk; gpupf;Fk; xU K];ypik epuhfupg;ghsuhfNt nksyhdh Mrhj; fUjpajhf Peter Hardy njuptpf;fpwhh;.

,e;jpahtpy; K];ypk;fspd; murpay; gyk; ghpNghdikAk; fyP/ghtpd; mjpfhuj;Jf;F gy;NtW rf;jpfs; mr;RWj;jy;; tpLj;jikAk; K];ypk; r%fj;jiytHfis ftiyailar;nra;jJ. ,e;jpahtpypUe;J K];ypk;fs; `p[;uj; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd gj;th nfhLf;Fk; msTf;F mtHfs; epHge;jpf;fg;gl;lhHfs;.

gpupj;jhdpaUf;F xj;Jiof;fhky; ,Ug;gjw;F khw;wkhf `p[;uj; nra;a KbAk; vd 1920 [{iy 30y; mg;Jy; fyhk; Mrhj; mtHfs; m`;Ny `jP]; vd;w gj;jpupifapy; gj;th toq;fpUe;jhHfs;.

nksyhdh mg;Jy; ghup gpd;tUkhW xU gj;thit toq;fpUe;jhHfs;.

,q;F thOk; K];ypk;fs; ahUk; gpupj;jhdpaUf;F xj;Jiog;Gf; nfhLf;f $lhJ. mJ rhj;jpakpy;iy vdpy; mtHfs; `p[;uj; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

mHg;gzpg;Gs;s K];ypk;fs; ahtUk; ,e;jpahtpNyNa njhlHe;J xj;Jiof;fhky;  Ntiy nra;thHfs; vd ek;GfpNwhk;. ,J rhj;jpakhfhtpby; mtHfs; `p[;uj; nra;al;Lk; vd fpyh/gj; FO rhHgpy; nksyhdh nrsfj; myp mwpf;if ntspapl;lhHfs;. ,e;j gj;thtpd; tpisthy; Mapuf;fzf;fhd K];ypk;fs; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J `p[;uj; nra;a tpUk;gpdhHfs;.

fpyh/gh vd;gJ murpaYld; kl;Lk; njhlHGila xU gpur;riday;y. eufpd; jz;lidf;Fk; euf tpLjiyf;Fk; ,ilapyhd xU gpur;rpidahFk;. JUf;fp mjd; vy;iyfis ,oe;jhy; ,];yhkpa rpj;jhe;jk; mghaj;Jf;Fs;shfptpLk;. 1923 bnrk;gH 7,y; ele;j fpyh/gj; khehl;bd; gj;jhtJ mkHtpy; ,ij cWjpg;gLjpg; Ngrpa nksyhdh nrsfj; myp mtHfs;>

[]PuJy; mugpd; xU mq;FskhtJ K];ypk; my;yhjtupd; Mf;fpukpg;gpw;Fw;gl;lhy; K];ypk;fs; kd epk;kjpAld; tho KbahJ vd $wpdhHfs;. (The Muslims, Shan Muhammad, Meenakshi Prakashan, 1981, Vol 2 page 209)

nkh`kj; M]pg; myp 1921 etk;gH 2y; vOjpa fbjnkhd;wpy; fpyh/ghit epiyehl;Ltjd; ,];yhkpag; nghWg;ig gpd;tUkhW Nfhbl;L fhl;bdhHfs;.

JUf;fpapd; ngUik ,];yhj;jpd; ngUikf;F epfuhdJ| c];khdpa rhk;uh[paj;jp;d; ,Ug;G K];ypk; ,dj;jpd; tsHrpf;F ,d;wpaikahjJ> c];khdpa rhk;uh[paj;jp;d; tPo;r;rpAld; ,];yhkpa ehfuPfj;jpd; gyk; ,y;yhky; Ngha;tpLk;> JUf;fp tPo;e;J tpl;lhy; ,];yhj;jhy; epiyf;f KbahJ> MfNt JUf;fpNa ,];yhj;jpd; KJnfYk;ghFk;. ,f; fUj;ij Mjupj;j nksyhdh K`kJ myp mtHfs; K];ypk;fspd; nghJthd fUj;ij ,J gpujpgypf;fpwJ vdf; $wpdhHfs;.

gpuhq;fp k`hy; (Firanqi Mahal) ,d; MjuTld; 1919 [dtup 26y; yf;Ndhtpy; ,lk;ngw;w md;[{kd; nkha;Jy; ,];yhj;jpd; (Anjuman- Moid-ul-Islam) $l;lj;jpy; gpd;tUk; jPHkhdk; vl;lg;gl;lJ. gpuhq;fp k`hy; (Firanqi Mahal) jdJ cz;ikahd ek;gpf;ifia Ry;jhd; K`k;kJ 6 mth;fSf;F njuptpg;gJld;> ,];yhkpa mfPjhtpd; mbg;gilapy; JUf;fpapd; jw;Nghija Ry;jhd;jhd; fyP/gh vd;Wk;> fpyh/gj; njhlHghd jPHkhdj;jpy; K];ypky;yhjtHfspd; jiyaPL ,Uf;ff; $lhnjd;Wk; mwptpf;fpwJ.

ira;aj; Riykhd; ej;tp Nghd;w ,];yhkpa mwpQHfs; $l fyP/ghtp;d; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij typAWj;jpas;shHfs;. my;yhkh e];tp> ,khk; uh]p> fh]p cYhj; MfpNahH ,J njhlHgpy; tpsf;fkhf Muha;e;Js;sdH. mth;fspd; KbNt ,Wjpahdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. igmj; ,y;yhky; kuzpf;Fk; xt;nthU K];ypKk; [h`pypa;aj;jpy; kuzpf;fpwhHfs; vd r`P`; K];ypkpy; u]{y;(]y;) $wpajhfg; gjpag;gl;Ls;sJ. (The Muslim Outlook, March 1920).

(1920 ,y; ghup]; efupy; Mw;wpa ciunahd;wpy; nksyhdh K`kJ  myp mtu;fs; gpd;tUkhW $Wfpwhu; fpyh/gj;Nj cyf K];ypk;fspd; Kf;fpakhd mikg;ghFk;> JUf;fpa Ry;jhNd ek;gpf;ifahsu;fspd; jsgjpAk; fyPghf;fspd; topj;Njhd;wYkhthh; vd cyfpd; ngUk;ghd;ikahd K];ypk;fs; Vw;Wf; nfhz;Ls;shHfs;. fpyh/gj;Jf;nfd;W NghJkhd gpuNjrk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd;gJk; NghJkhd ,uhZt tsq;fSk; epjp tsKk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk; ,e;j mfPjhtpd; Kf;fpa gFjpahFk;.

K`k;kJ myp ciuahw;wpa mNj $l;lj;jpy; ira;aj; `{ird; gpd;tUkhW $WfpwhH. ,];yhk; ,e;j cyfpy; epiyf;f Ntz;Lnkdpy; mjw;F fpyh/gj; ,Uf;f Ntz;baJ kpff; fl;lhakhFk;. 1400 Mz;Lfhy ,];yhkpa tuyhWk; ,ijNa fhl;LfpwJ.

nksyhdh nkh`kj; myp N[h`u; gpd;tUkhW $Wfpwhu; JUf;fpa Ry;jhNd fyP/gh> mkPUy; K/kpdpd;> ek;gpf;ifahsu;fspd; jiytu;> u]{y;(]y;)mtu;fspd; topj;Njhd;wy;. Fu;Md; Rd;dh Nghd;Nw fpyh/ghTk; vkJ kj tplaq;fspy; xd;W (My life a fragment, Mohamed Ali Johar p.g 41)

cykhf;fNs fpyh/gh ,af;fj;jpy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jdu; vd;gJ ,q;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;.

1920 Vguy; 5k; kw;Wk; 6k; jpfjpfspy; ,e;jpahtpy; ,lk;ngw;w fpyh/gh khehl;by; gy;NtW cykhf;fs; fye;J nfhz;L mq;Nf gy jPh;khdq;fs; epiwNtw;wg;gl;ld. mtw;wpy; rpy fPo;tUkhW:

1tJ : fpyh/gh njhlHgpy; kf;fs; mgpg;guhaj;ij Vw;gLj;j

cykhf;fs; ghLgl Ntz;Lk;.

2tJ : fpyh/gj;jpw;F vjpuhd mwpQHfs; vdg;gLNthUk;> Kdhgpf;FfSk; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

7tJ: jkJ capiu fpyh/gh gw;wp NgrTk; vOjTk; mHg;gzpf;f Ntz;Lnkd jk;ik gpd; gw;WgtHfsplk; cykhf;fs; thf;FWjp thq;f Ntz;Lk;.

9tJ : murpayikg;G uPjpapyhd NjHjy;fspy; ,Ue;J K];ypk;fs;

tpyfpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

nly;ypapy; 1920 etk;gu; 19k; 20k; jpfjpfspy; ,lk;ngw;w [k;kpaJy; cykh `pe;jpDila mfpy ,e;jpa ehl;by; fpyh/ghTf;F MjuT njuptpf;Fk; Kfkhf gpd;tUk; jPu;khdq;fs; epiwNtw;wg;gl;ld.

Mq;fpNyau;fNs K];ypk;fspd; gpujhd vjpupfs;> vdNt mtu;fis vjpu;g;gJ gu;shFk;.

ck;kj;ijAk; fpyh/gj;ijAk; ghJfhg;gJ kpfj; njspthd ,];yhkpaj; NjitahFk;. vdNt ,e;j ehl;bYs;s rNfhjuu;fs; ,jw;fhf cjtpfisAk;> xj;Jiog;gpidAk; toq;Fthh;fNsahdhy; mjw;fhf mth;fs; ed;wpf;Fwpath;fshthh;fs;.

jhUy; cYk; jpNahgj;jpd; jiytu; n`a;Fy; `pe;j; nksyhdh k`;%j; `]d; mtu;fs; 1920 [{d; 8md;W rpiwapypUe;J  tpLtpf;fg;gl;lhu;fs;. jdJ tpLjiyapd; gpd;du; fpyh/gj; ,af;fj;jpy; mth; jd;id <Lj;jpf;nfhz;lhu;fs.; ,JFwpj;J nksyhdh `{ird; m`kj; kjdp mtu;fs; gpd;tUkhW $Wfpwhu;fs;.

rpiwapy; fLk; f\;lq;fis mDgtpj;Jtpl;L n\a;Fy; `pe;j; ,e;jpah jpUk;gpa NghJ $l fhydpj;JtthjpfSf;nfjpuhd mtuJ Nghuhl;l kdg;ghq;fpYk;> mtu; gpupj;jhdpaiu vjpu;j;j tpjj;jpYk; vt;tpj khw;wKk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. martial law mKyhf;fk;;> ut;yhj; rl;lj;jpd; (Rawlatt law) mKyhf;fk;> ehl;bDs; ,lk;ngw;w [hypad;thyh gh`; gLnfhiyfs;> c];khdpa rhk;uh[paj;jpypUe;jhd gpupT> JUf;fpUf;nfjpuhf ,e;jpahTf;F ntspNa kdpjhgpkhdkw;w Kiwapy; ,lk;ngw;w epfo;Tfs;  Nghd;wd mtiu ftiyailar; nra;jpUe;jd. mtH gk;ghapy; fhyb vLj;J itj;jTld; nksyhdh mypiaAk; fpyh/gh ,af;fj;jpd; kw;iwa cWg;gpdHfisAk; re;jpj;jhH. yf;Ndh Firqani Mahel ,ypUe;J nksyhdh mg;Jy; ghupAk; m`kjhghjpypUe;J kfhj;kh fhe;jpAk; n\a;Fy; `pe;ij tuNtw;f gk;gha;f;Fr;nrd;wpUe;jdH. mtHfSlDk; fpyh/gj; ,af;fj;jpd; Vida cWg;gpdHfSlDk; jdpg;gl;l uPjpapYk; nghJthfTk; fye;Jiuahba mtHfs; ,e;jpahit tpLjiyf;fhf mfpk;irg; topg;Nghuhl;lj;Jf;F xg;Gf;nfhz;lhu;fs; (Naqsh - e – hayat, Vol 2,

P. 247)

fhydpj;JtthjpfSld; xd;whf nraw;gLtJ njhlu;gpy; n\a;f; mtu;fs; xU gj;thit toq;fpapUe;jhu;fs;. 1920,y; ntspaplg;gl;l me;j gj;th ,d;iwa epiyf;Ff;Ff;$l nghUj;jkhf fhzg;LfpwJ. me;j gj;thtpy;>

,];yhj;jpd; nfsutj;ijAk; kupahijiaAk; rPu;Fiyf;f vjpupfs; rfy topfisAk; ifahz;Ltpl;ldu;. u]{y; (]y;) mtHfspdJk; ]`hghf;fspdJk; mjw;Fg; gpd; te;jtHfspdJk; fLikahd jpahfj;jpd; tpisthf ntw;wp nfhs;sg;gl;l <uhf;> gy];jPd;> rpupah Mfpad gpuNjrq;fs; kPz;Lk; vjpupfspd; ,yf;fhfpAs;sd. fpyh/gj;jpd; kupahij jLkhwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. G+kpapYs;s K];ypk; ck;kj;ij xd;wpizf;f Ntz;ba> ,];yhkpa rl;lj;ij mKy;gLj;j Ntz;ba> K];ypk;fspd; cupikfisAk; clikfisAk; ghJfhf;f Ntz;ba my;yh`;tpd; trdq;fis epiyehl;l Ntz;ba fyP/gh jw;NghJ vjpupfshy; R+og;gl;L xd;Wk; nra;a Kbahj epiyf;F js;sg;gl;Ls;shH. ,];yhkpaf;nfhb fPopwq;fp gwf;fpwJ. `];uj; mG+ cigjh(uop)> rhj; gpd; mgp tfh];(uop)> fhypj; gpd; tyPj;(uop)> mG+ mA+g; md;rhup(u`;) Nghd;Nwhupd; Mj;khf;fs; ,d;W mikjpailahky; cs;sd. K];ypk;fs; jkJ kjpg;igAk;> nfsutj;ijAk;> Ra kupahijAk; ,oe;jikNa ,jw;Ff;fhuzkhFk;. tPuKk;> khHf;fg;gw;WNk mtHfsJ tpUg;gkhfTk; nry;tkhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ftdaPdj;jhYk;> ,yl;rpakpd;ikahYk; mtHfs; ,jid ,oe;J tpl;lhHfs;.

K];ypk;fs; rfy K];ypk;fSf;Fk; cjthkypUe;jJ f\;lkhd fhyq;fspy; kl;Lky;y. JujpH\;ltrkhf  fhgpHfspd; ed;kjpg;igAk; el;igAk; ngUk; nghUl;L K];ypk;fNs jkJ rNfhjuHfis nfhiy nra;a Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhHfs;. K];ypk;fNs jkJ rNfhjuHfspd; ,uj;jj;jpy; ePe;j Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhHfs;.

,];yhj;jpd; Foe;ijfNs ! ,e;j Njrj;ij tpUk;GtHfNs ! ,];yhkpa cyif vupj;J fpyh/ghitj; jPapl;l ,bAk; neUg;Gk; mugpfsplkpUe;Jk; ,e;jpaHfsplkpUe;Jk; jhd; ngwg;gl;lJ vd;gij vd;id tpl ePq;fs; ed;F mwptPHfs;. K];ypk; Njrq;fis fl;Lg;gLj;j fpwp];jtHfs; gad; gLj;jpa mjpfhuj;ijAk; tsj;ijAk; cq;fspd; fLk; ciog;gpypUe;Nj mtHfs; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

fpwp];jth;fSld; xd;W Nrh;e;J nraw;gLtjd; tpisTfis mwpahj Kl;lhs; K];yPk;fs; ahUk; ,Uf;fpwhh;fsh?

(From Fatwa of Moulana  Mahmood Hasan on 16th Safar 1339 Hijri, Corresponding to October 29th, 1920, Georgian year, The Prisoners of Malta, (Asira’h - e- malta), Moulana Syed Muhammed Mian, Jamiat ulama- l- hind, English edition, page 78-79.)

,d;iwa cykhf;fspy; gyh; $WtJ Nghy; ,];yhKk; murpaYk; NtWgl;lJ vd;gjw;F khw;wkhf ,];yhKk; murpaYk; xd;wpypUe;J xd;W gpupf;f Kbahj tplaq;fs; vd;gij md;iwa cykhf;fs; czh;e;jpUe;jdh;. fpyh/gj;jpd; tPo;rpf;F rpy ehl;fSf;F Kd;G [k;kpaJy; cykh `pe;Jila 4tJ mkh;T 1923 brk;gh; 24y; fhahtpy; eilngw;wJ. ,e;jpahtpd; gy ghfq;fspypUe;Jk; te;jpUe;j ,];yhkpa mwpQh;fs;> K];yPk; r%fj;jpd; murpay; vjph;fhyk; Fwpj;J Mokhf fye;J ciuahbdhh;fs;. ePz;l MNyhridfspd; gpd; kjKk; murpaYk; ,];yhj;jpd; gpupf;f Kbahj ,U mq;fq;fs; vd;w KbTf;F te;jdh;.

,e;jpahtpy; fpyh/gh ,af;fj;jpd; gue;j mstpyhd nry;thf;fpid ghh;j;J ,e;jpahtpd; je;ij vd;W miof;fg;gLk; ,e;Jkjj;ijr; rhh;e;j Nkhfd;jh]; fhe;jpAk; fpyh/gh ,af;fj;jpd; kj;jpa FO cWg;gpduhdhh;.

K];jgh fkhypdhy; 1924 khHr; 3 md;W fpyh/gh tPo;jg;gl;lJld; fpyh/gh ,af;fKk; kiwe;Jtpl;lJ. fpyh/ghit kPsikg;gJ rhj;jpak;kw;wJ vdf; fUjpa gyH gpd;ehspy; gpuj;jhdpa fhydpj;Jt thjpfsplkpUe;J ,e;jpahit tpLjiy milar; nra;tjpy; ftdj;ij nrYj;jpdH.

fpyh/gh tPo;jg;gl;l mLj;j ehspd; nksyhdh K`k;kJ myp nfs\H $wpajhf TIMES gj;jpupif 1924 khHr; 4y; gpd;tUk; nra;jpia ntspapl;lJ.

fpyhghtpd; tPo;r;rp ,e;jpa K];ypk;fspd; kdjpy; vj;jifa jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ vd vjpHT $WtJ fbdkhFk;. ,];yhj;jpw;Fk; ehfupfj;jpw;Fk; ,J xU mopit Vw;gLj;jpapUf;fpwJ vd;gij vd;dhy; cWjpahf $w KbAk;. ,];yhkpa xw;Wikapd;  rpd;dk; vd K];ypk; cyfhy; mwpag;gl;l mikg;gpd; tPo;r;rp xw;WikaPdj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk;…”

fpyh/ghtpd; tPo;r;rpf;Fg;gpd; mtH $wpa mNj tplaq;fis ehk; ,d;W fhz;fpNwhk;. vdpDk; fpyh/gh tPo;jg;gl;L 80 Mz;Lfisj;jhz;bAs;s epiyapy; fpyh/gh vd;gJ Nkw;fpd; murpay;thjpfspdJk;> jiytHfspdJk;> rpe;jidahsHfspdJk; NgRnghUshf khwptpl;lJld; fpyh/ghit kPz;Lk; epiyehl;l Ntz;Lk; vd;w czh;T K];ypk;fspilNa tYg;ngw;W tUtijf;fz;L mth;fs; jaf;fk; nfhs;tij vk;khy; ntspg;gilahfNt fhz Kbfpd;wJ. 2006 mf;NlhgH md;W nts;is khspifapy; eilngw;w xU gj;jpupifahsH khehl;by; N[hH[; lgps;A G\; gpd;tUkhW $wpapUe;jhH.

Gj;jp[Ptpfis kpul;b kpjthj murhq;fisf; ftpo;j;J fpyh/gj;ij epiyehl;b tphpGgLj;j jPtputhjpfs; Kaw;rpf;fpd;wdH. jq;fsJ ,yf;if ,ila jPtputhj rf;jpfs; kjj;ij cgNahfpf;fpd;wdH. ehq;fs; ntspNaWtijNa tpUk;Gk; mtHfs; muRfis ftpo;f;f epidf;fpd;wdH. Rje;jpuj;Jf;F ,lk; toq;fhj rpj;jhe;j uPjpahd fpyh/gj;ij; epiyehl;l epidf;fpd;wdH.

fpyh/gh ,];yhj;jpd; cs;she;j gFjpfspd; xd;W vd;gij Nkw;F czu Ntz;bapUf;fpwJ. vdNt fpyh/gj;jpd; kPs;tUiff;F vjpuhf NgRtij jtph;j;Jf;nfhz;L mJ kPstUk;NghJ vt;thW mjDld; Nrh;e;J ,aq;f KbAk; vd;gij rpe;jpg;gNj mth;fSf;F rpwe;jjhFk;.

fpyh/ghtpd; mj;jpatrpa Njitia ,e;jpa cgfz;l K];ypk;fs; kwe;J tpltpy;iy. cgfz;lj;jpw;Fs;NsNa mij kPs epiyehl;l ,af;fq;fSk;> rpe;jidahsHfSk; Fuy; nfhLj;J tUfpwhHfs; vd;gJ jpUg;jpaspf;fpwJ. vdpDk; ,d;Dk; ghhpa Kaw;rpfs; Xh; jiyikf;Ff;fPo; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L Kd;ndLf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.

fpyh/gh kPs epiyehl;lg;gLk; vd;gijAk; mJ ,e;jpa cgfz;ljij kPsTk; ifgw;Wk; vd;gijAk;; gpd;tUk; `jP]; njspthf Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

egp (]y;) $wpajhf mG `{iuuh (uyp) mtHfs; mwptpf;fpwhHfs;>
cq;fspy; xU $l;lk; ,e;jpahit ifgw;Wk;. kw;nwhU `jP]py;

,U $l;lj;jhiu my;yh`; euf neUg;gpypUe;J ghJfhj;J tpl;lhd;. xU $l;lk; ,e;jpahit ntw;wpnfhz;l $l;lk;> kw;iwaJ <]h ,g;D kHaKld; ,Uf;Fk; $l;lk;. (m`kj;> e]h<)

vdNt Nky; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l my;yh`;tpd; thf;FWjpAlDk;> vkJ Kd;ida jiyth;fspd; jiyepkph;e;j Nghuhl;lq;fspdJk; topj;jlq;fspNy ehKk; tpiuthf Kd;NdWtjw;F Kaw;rpf;f jplrq;fw;gk; G+ZNthk;.

 

 

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